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1988. University of Wisconsin – River Falls The bad news is, they're fairly expensive and you need to scout regularly for weeds to determine when and what to spray. crop injury may occur to alfalfa seedlings less than the 2 trifoliate stage. Alfalfa is the most productive legume for Missouri, with potential yields exceeding six tons of hay per acre on good soils. Younger plants (those one year old or less) contain less toxin than older plants. This process is known as autotoxicity. DO NOT apply to seedling alfalfa earlier than 5 months after emergence. ... Herbicide Spray Program . Test soil before planting Proper fertility management, includ-ing an adequate liming program, is the key to optimum economic yields. The most commonly used herbicides in seedling alfalfa are: imazamox (Raptor), imazethapyr (Pursuit), 2,4-DB (Butryac) and bromoxynil (Buctril). Autotoxicity stunts root development, which lowers seedling emergence and vigor. Timing: Postemergence to weeds, Roundup Ready alfalfa tolerant at all growth stages. Alfalfa autotoxins do not affect any other crop The age of the existing alfalfa stand will affect autotoxicity. If alfalfa must be planted in spring following a spring killing of an old alfalfa stand, wait at least three weeks before reseeding. Crops Labeled for Use Alfalfa Stage of Crop Growth Active Alfalfa Alfalfa-Grass Mixtures Clovers (Red, Aslike, Ladino) Birdsfoot Trefoil Lespedeza Dormant Semi-Dormant Non-Dormant Between Cuttings Spot Spray or Wiper Application Ingredient Products Before Seeding glyphosate Roundup, etc. On established alfalfa stands weeds seldom cause stand thinning but rather fill holes were alfalfa has died out. Planting a crop such as oats, sorghum or other early harvested crop may help in that some of the toxin may be removed through plant uptake. Autotoxicity affects the development of the seedling root system. by Wayne K. Coblentz1 and Richard E. Muck2 For broadcast seeding, seeding rates need to be increased by 10 to 20 percent. Apply to established alfalfa … This results in reduced seedling emergence. These stands should be rotated out of alfalfa, or late summer seeded following oats or some other annual crop. First, spray the growing grass sod with a non-selective herbicide. It is not known what the thresholds is below which autotoxicity is not a concern. Crop rotations also suffer when farmers switch to other crops to replace damaged alfalfa stands. Proc. Prepare your soil. March 31, 2011. Studies at River Falls showed stands densities as low as 30 stems/ft2 exhibited autotoxicity similar to stands with 70 plants/ft2. L L L L1 L1 - - - - - paraquat Gramoxone, etc. Conventional tillage is a more desirable planting method for flat and uniform fields than no-till planting, which is for rocky or steep slopes. Timing of seeding for new alfalfa establishment is critical to the success of the emerging crop and for the future success of the stand. Apply a long residual insecticide if the larval number you find is greater than the number in the table above for the average height of alfalfa sampled. Michigan State University Soil Testing Lab. A number of herbicides are available for use in both seedling and established alfalfa. For pure alfalfa stands, 18 to 20 pounds per acre should be planted. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. Alfalfa Following Alfalfa. plants may inhibit root growth of new alfalfa seedlings. Red Pepper Insect Spray For Plants. For conventional planting, pre-emergence herbicide, such as Eptam or Chateau, can be incorporated into the soil before planting alfalfa. The degree of toxicity is directly related to the amount of time between killing the old stand and establishing the new stand. For established stands (i.e., alfalfa that was planted in fall or spring and has gone through a first cutting/mowing), apply 1.1 to 4.2quarts/A prior to weed emergence. Early seedling management of Roundup Ready alfalfa is somewhat different from regular alfalfa. Join experts to discuss the latest in animal welfare issues that face the beef cattle industry. Seedlings within 8 inches of an old plant did not survive (Fig.2). 1999. On no-till planting, only post-emergence herbicides, such as Raptor, Pursuit, or Select can be used. Several factors must be considered in selecting herbicides for alfalfa including: Extensive alfalfa winter injury can upset forage inventories, make dairy ration formulation difficult and result in the need to purchase hay, which can be expensive. Plants that are healthy in fall and then winterkill will not release the toxins from the roots until they thaw. Rate: Up to 44 oz/A Roundup Original Max or WeatherMax in a single application, not to exceed a total 132 oz/A for in-crop treatments per year . Timing of seeding for new alfalfa establishment is critical to the success of the emerging crop and for the future success of the stand. Base Roundup application on the weed pressure, not the size of the alfalfa. May be tank-mixed with Pursuit, Buctril, or 2,4-DB for broadleaf weed control. Consequently, the effects are less pronounced but are longer lasting. Remove the competition of the companion crop as soon as possible. Alfalfa does well on well-drained soil rather than wet, heavy clay soils and requires good soil pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.0. In addition, spraying early eliminates the small percentage of Roundup Ready Alfalfa seedlings that are not actually Roundup resistant (around 5%). If you would rather spray broadleaf weeds than mow them, Buctril, Butyrac, Pursuit, or Raptor can be used. Do not use on mixed stands. L L L L1 L1 - - - - - paraquat Gramoxone, etc. Soc. Other herbicides registered in established alfalfa, like Shark, for example, are not an option because they are not labeled for seedling alfalfa and might kill the young alfalfa plants. High rainfall leaches the toxins more rapidly than low rainfall. 29. Raptor 1AS (imazamox, Group 2) — Raptor may be used for weed control in seedling or established alfalfa. There will be significant yield reductions if these stands are spring seeded back to alfalfa unless they are less than two years old. Follow soil test recommendations from the Michigan State University Soil Testing Lab after your soil is analyzed. © University of Wisconsin Board of Regents, 2003, Dennis Cosgrove, Extension Forage Agronomist According to Dan Undersander, extension forage agronomist at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, late summer seeding is an excellent way to re-establish stands and is actually the preferred time of year to seed in many regions. To successfully grow alfalfa, you need to commit to a regular scouting program. This condition is called “autotoxicity” and occurs most frequently when alfalfa is killed shortly before reseeding or when many live alfalfa plants remain in the stand. Emerged plants are stunted and may show purpling because of their inability to take up adequate amounts of phosphorus. djunders@facstaff.wisc.edu. How long they remain and what affect they have on a new alfalfa seeding is a function of soil type, temperature, and amount to rainfall. If you need to repel mammals and birds, make a batch of red pepper spray. The reduced rate seedling year application is specifically The cause of alfalfa autotoxicity has never been fully explained and can cause direct failure of germination and seedling establishment. For seedling alfalfa (2-trifoliate to six inches tall), apply Prowl H2O at 1.1 to 2.1 pints pt/A prior to weed emergence. They include metribuzin, Velpar, Sinbar, Pursuit, Raptor, and Karmex. So, spraying the fall-planted seedlings now will kill up to 10% (the non-Roundup Ready alfalfa plants) and leave the field with hay containing dead stems (yes, all stems in alfalfa hay are dead anyway.) A friend had me try the Grower's Source™ program. If alfalfa must be planted in the same year an old stand is killed, a late-summer seeding represents the best option. Remove the competition of the companion crop as soon as possible. Stands affected by autotoxicity during the seedling year will have reduced yields not only in that year but in subsequent years as well. Marble. Plant height 2" 4" 6" 8" ! Spraying will give you more pure alfalfa but may cost some in total tonnage. The red pepper spray is designed to make your plants less tasty to these garden pests. Seeding alfalfa after alfalfa is high risk. If alfalfa must follow alfalfa, the best choice is to kill the old alfalfa in the year prior to seeding. WI Forage Council 25th Forage Production and Use Symposium. Apply Raptor postemergence at 4 to 6 fluid ounces per acre. Control is best when alfalfa is in the 3rd trifoliolate leaf stage and grass weeds are between 2 to 6 inches tall, growing vigorously before tillers develop. Establishing good stands of alfalfa can be done by proper site selection, seeding rate, weed control and planting method. Pursuit may be used on established alfalfa-grass mixtures. “It’s just good to know where you’re at,” … They all control mustards and pennycress, but Karmex and Pursuit do not control downy brome very well. PP110-116. For seedling alfalfa, Prowl H2O can be applied at 1–2 pt per acre once alfalfa has reached the second trifoliate stage of development but prior to reaching 6 inches in growth. Plant your wheat or forage grass seed into these pots and wait for the seedlings to germinate in order to observe any signs of herbicide carryover injury that may be present. For more information, visit https://extension.msu.edu. These compounds are microbially degraded and so conditions that favor microbial growth (warm, moist versus cool, dry soils) reduce the persistence of the toxins. DO NOT apply to seedling alfalfa earlier than 5 months after emergence. Each harvested dry matter ton of alfalfa removes approximately 11 pounds of P2O5 and 53 pounds of K2O. Progressive Cattle magazine captures the essence of the cattle producer and ranching experience. In erosion-prone areas, conservation plans may restrict farmers from converting winterkilled alfalfa to corn or other row cr, Effects of Rain Damage on Wilting Forages Alfalfa autoxicity is a trait which causes alfalfa to be toxic to its own seedlings. Vancouver, BC. Once a stand of alfalfa is killed, whether by plowing, spraying or even winterkill, the autotoxic compounds are released into the soil environment. There are a number of potentially autotoxic chemicals produced by alfalfa, one of which is called medicarpin. 2,4-DB amine is a foliar applied systemic herbicide which is often used in seedling alfalfa to control small broadleaved weeds. Second, no-till plant an annual forage crop, such as winter wheat or rye, to smother regrowth of any grass sod or break-hard sod. Roundup Ready Alfalfa Seed quantities limited initially. Seedling alfalfa must be scouted about one month after emergence to determine the weed infestation. This smaller root system reduces the plant’s ability to take up water and nutrients. For spring seeding, weed control is essential to prevent seeding failure from severe weed pressure. Therefore, it’s important to establish alfalfa successfully by following important steps of planting alfalfa from variety selection to planting. Plant your wheat or forage grass seed into these pots and wait for the seedlings to germinate in order to observe any signs of herbicide carryover injury that may be present. Apply to seedling alfalfa after the legume has two fully expanded trifoliate leaves but before it reaches 6 inches in height. Understanding autotoxicity of alfalfa. The period from initial emergence to final emergence was considered the initial establishment or seedling stage (Misar et al., 2016), whereas This compound is present throughout the plant but is more concentrated in top growth than roots. In AA Hanson, DK Barnes and RR Hill, Jr., Alfalfa and Alfalfa Improvement, 303-22. We are also examining seeding the alfalfa, spraying with Roundup and then seeding a perennial grass into the stand to establish grass legume mixtures. The cause of alfalfa autotoxicity has never been fully explained and can cause direct failure of germination and seedling establishment. Among these chemicals are some that inhibit the growth of other plant species. This affect will persist throughout the life of the plant. This effect was even more pronounced (50% and 80%) when the new alfalfa stand was established without tillage. Alfalfa is the most productive legume for Missouri, with potential yields exceeding six tons of hay per acre on good soils. Tillage affects the level of toxin in the soil. In certain instances such as after a failed seeding, winterkill or in an attempt to thicken thinning stands, producers may be interested in following alfalfa with alfalfa. Before spraying these weeds, be sure they are causing economic damage to your alfalfa. Weed competition during establishment will reduce alfalfa seedling vigor and potentially reduce the alfalfa plant population, which can affect crop yield and quality throughout the life of the stand. In this Focus on Forage, we will discuss what causes autotoxicity, factors that affect it, and ways to reduce the effect. Oil and soap added to the baking soda ensure the spray sticks to the leaves. Apply Raptor at 4 to 6 fl oz/A plus adjuvants to small, actively growing weeds and to established alfalfa in the fall or in the spring. Plant height 2" 4" 6" 8" ! Use the technology to its fullest – it has been observed how competitive even seedling weeds can be to alfalfa. An exception would be large dead areas, such as from ice sheeting, or failed new seedings where only young plants (less than one year old) are present. Either cultipacker type seeder or a grain drill can be used for a conventional tillage for planting alfalfa. Wisconsin research showed the effects of autotoxicity to be greater in no-till fields than those moldboard plowed. When seeding alfalfa in the spring, summer annual weeds are the biggest problem. Toxins inhibit the ability of the root radicle to elongate. Application guidelines. This means that failed seedings or even new seedings that winterkill can be seeded back to alfalfa with little yield reduction. In general, no-till costs less than a conventional tillage in terms of time, fuel and power requirements. Sinbar 80W (terbacil) — May be applied to established alfalfa at up to 1.5 lb/A or to a new fall seeding at 0.33 to 0.5 lb/A. An EEO/AA employer, University of Wisconsin-Madison Division of Extension provides equal opportunities in employment and programming, including Title VI, Title IX, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act requirements. Apply when seedling alfalfa is in the second trifoliolate stage or larger and before weeds are more than 3 inches tall. For seedling alfalfa (2-trifoliate to six inches tall), apply Prowl H2O at 1.1 to 2.1 pints pt/A prior to weed emergence. This is the best and safest way to manage new seedings of alfalfa. In Pennsylvania, Stout et al. Introduction 1996. Wisconsin studies have shown yield reductions of 30% and 70% when alfalfa was seeded 4 weeks or 2 weeks after plowing down old alfalfa plants (1) (Fig. Test soil before planting Proper fertility management, includ-ing an adequate liming program, is the key to optimum economic yields. Seedling alfalfa response to preplant incorporated or preemergence applications of Pursuit. Introduction More aggressive tillage will better mix and dilute the toxins. Thorough coverage is essential for best control. Having firm seedbed is essential to good seed-soil contact, and as a rule of thumb, an adult’s foot hill should be about 1/4” to 1/2" deep. Researchers at the University of Missouri found that new seedlings planted within 8 to 16 inches of an old alfalfa plant had significant yield reductions (2). If a grain crop is desired, plant the crop without alfalfa and then seed alfalfa into the stubble of this crop at a later date. Given this, along with the potential for weed competition, interseeding alfalfa to thicken alfalfa stands is not likely to be successful and is not recommended. Alfalfa seedlings establish slowly and are very sensitive to competition for limited resources. To maximize the benefits of Roundup Ready alfalfa, glyphosate should be applied to seedling alfalfa at the 3 to 5 trifoliate stage when weeds are less than 4 inches tall. Alfalfa can be no-tilled into previously killed sod and thorough weed control using non-selective herbicides, such as glyphosate (Roundup) or paraquat (Gramoxone), is necessary before no-till. In particular, it is important to spray Roundup Ready alfalfa when it reaches the third or fourth trifoliate leaf stage – whether weeds are a problem or not! Alfalfa (/ æ l ˈ f æ l f ə /), also called lucerne and called Medicago sativa in binomial nomenclature, is a perennial flowering plant in the legume family Fabaceae.It is cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world. L L L L L Monogr. Harvest the grain crop for hay or forage rather This means that the autotoxic effect of a winterkilled stand would be similar to that of a stand killed in early spring. The problem with spraying the early seeded alfalfa now is that any germinated weeds will be shielded by the alfalfa canopy. Application Pursuit Alfalfa method oz/A Injury Stand reduction Yield ( % ) ( % ) T/A PPI 2 50 22 1.0 4 62 33 0.5 6 72 43 0.6 PE 2 45 18 1.2 4 60 42 0.8 6 73 48 0.8 Weedy check -- 0 0 1.6 Weed-free check -- … uctril controls most small broadleaf weeds, but alfalfa injury can occur when temperatures exceed 80 degrees. Spraying no w protects alfalfa weevil parasites emerging later. On heavier textured soils, the toxins are more tightly adsorbed to soils colloids and less prone to leaching. In all of the scenarios discussed above except rotating out of alfalfa for at least one year, some yield reduction will likely be experienced. 2US Dairy Forage Research Center, Madison, WI Thus, liming will be required to raise low soil pH to its optimum level and make better nutrient uptake. As stands age and become thin, producers often wonder if they can be thickened by interseeding alfalfa into them. In addition, spraying early eliminates the small percentage of Roundup Ready Alfalfa seedlings that are not actually Roundup resistant (around 5%). These herbicides are used alone or in tank-mix combinations depending on the weed species present. Include a crop oil concentrate in the spray mixture. Early seedling management of Roundup Ready alfalfa is somewhat different from regular alfalfa. Autotoxicity. First, spray the growing grass sod with a non-selective herbicide. In part, this is due to the very competitive environment the new seedling is placed in and in part due to autotoxic chemicals secreted by the existing plants. Several herbicides can help control winter annual grasses and weeds in conventional alfalfa. Rate increases with larger alfalfa plant size: use the 8 fl oz rate (0.125 lb a.i.) In case of emergency Call your poison control center: 1-800-222-1222 If the patient has collapsed or is not breathing: call 9-1-1 Pesticide Safety Information This gives the toxins time to be degraded, leached, or otherwise removed from the soil environment. Summer seeding of alfalfa is an alternative to spring seeding. Roundup Ready Alfalfa was first released in 2005 but was pulled from the market in 2007 until an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) by the USDA could be completed. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464). Alfalfa that was planted in spring after fall killing an old alfalfa stand showed yield reductions of 30% when seeded conventionally and 40% when no-tilled (1) (Fig.1). Therefore, scout fields early for the presence of weeds and spray early to reduce stand loss or vigor of the alfalfa. ... "My 10 year old alfalfa stand was pretty ragged so I intended to plow it up and start over. Connect with your County Extension Office », Find an Extension employee in our staff directory », Get the latest news and updates on Extension's work around the state, Feedback, questions or accessibility issues: info@extension.wisc.edu | © 2020 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Policy | Discrimination and Harassment Complaints | Disability Accommodation Requests | Civil Rights. Water-soluble compounds produced by existing alfalfa . Site selection. Spraying no w protects alfalfa weevil parasites emerging later. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. Unlike red or white clover, established alfalfa is productive during midsummer except during extreme drought. Alfalfa autotoxins do not affect any other crop Once a stand of alfalfa is killed, whether by plowing, spraying or even winterkill, the autotoxic compounds are released into the soil environment. Herbicides available to control broadleaf weeds postemergence in seedling alfalfa include bromoxynil, 2,4-DB, Pursuit and Raptor. Focus on Forage – Vol 5: No. L L L L L Establishment problems can result if the existing stand was not plowed or sprayed at least 3 weeks before reseeding. Surviving plants will develop a secondary root system that is shallow and more highly branched than that of an unaffected plant. According to Steve Orloff, extension educator with the University of California – Davis, the biggest advantage to a fall seeding is: It favors root growth over shoot growth. This condition is called “autotoxicity” and occurs most frequently when alfalfa … We are also examining seeding the alfalfa, spraying with Roundup and then seeding a perennial grass into the stand to establish grass legume mixtures. Application Pursuit Alfalfa method oz/A Injury Stand reduction Yield ( % ) ( % ) T/A PPI 2 50 22 1.0 4 62 33 0.5 6 72 43 0.6 PE 2 45 18 1.2 4 60 42 0.8 6 73 48 0.8 Weedy check -- 0 0 1.6 Weed-free check -- … Pre-plant. Seedling dock can be controlled in seedling stands, but established dock in established alfalfa cannot be controlled with BUTYRAC 200. This practice has met with varied success due primarily to compounds produced by older alfalfa plants, which inhibit the growth of young seedlings. It is best to get these out as early as … The time interval between eliminating an old stand and planting a new one has an important influence on the effects of autotoxicity. This practice has met with very little success. New Seeding. Plants produce a wide range of chemicals aimed at defending them from attack by insects and diseases. Control … In Missouri yield was reduced 8% if alfalfa was seeded back within three weeks (2). Spraying at the 3 to 5 leaf stage … Doo-Hong Min, Michigan State University Extension - ! DO NOT apply Solicam within 28 … Tillage can allow lime and fertilizer to be incorporated into the soil that promotes good stand establishment. For established stands (i.e., alfalfa that was planted in fall or spring and has gone through a first cutting/mowing), apply 1.1 to 4.2quarts/A prior to weed emergence. Goal. Good management and attention to some of the potential pitfalls is required to minimize the risk of establishment failure. Add AMS at 8.5 to 17 lb/100 gallons of spray solution. Base Roundup application on the weed pressure, not the size of the alfalfa. Density of the previous alfalfa stand also impacts the concentration of toxins in the soil. 4 Some examples of infestations and recommendations are as follows: If one competitive broadleaf weed or grass plant per square foot is found, spray in October or November. This is called “alfalfa autotoxicity”. Add AMS at 8.5 to 17 lb/100 gallons of spray solution. The good news is that there are herbicides to control most weed problems in alfalfa. Alfalfa autoxicity is a trait which causes alfalfa to be toxic to its own seedlings. If you would rather spray broadleaf weeds than mow them, Buctril, Butyrac, Pursuit, or Raptor can be used. The best way to avoid autotoxicity is to rotate to some other crop such as corn for at least a year before seeding the same field back to alfalfa. May be applied to dormant and actively-growing alfalfa. Tesar, M.B., and V.L. Jennings, J. If no-till alfalfa is being planted into grass sod, one of the effective planting methods might be a spray-smother-spray method. Alfalfa is a tap-rooted crop and can last five years and longer under proper management. 2016. 1US Dairy Forage Research Center, Marshfield, WI To have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https://extension.msu.edu/newsletters. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Progressive Cattle magazine captures the essence of the cattle producer and ranching experience. One of the most common problems faced by hay or silage producers is how to manage production schedules around unfavorable weather. Apply when alfalfa is in the first trifoliolate leaf stage. dennis.r.cosgrove@uwrf.edu, Dan Undersander, Extension Forage Agronomist Applications made with this product when temperatures are expected to exceed 80ºF at and 3 days following application can result in unacceptable crop injury. Of course, it makes sense to spray if you have weeds. These compounds are called secondary metabolites, as they have no metabolic function in the plant except as a defensive mechanism. Inevitably, some wilting forage crops are damaged by rainfall each year, and producers often inquire about the effects of rain damage, and what impact this may have on f. This form needs Javascript to display, which your browser doesn’t support. If you must plant a cover crop, seed oats or barley at 30-40 lbs per acre ahead of seeding alfalfa. Research in this area is somewhat conflicting. Broadleaf weeds should be between 1 to 3 inches and grasses below 6 inches. if alfalfa has 6 trifoliate leaves. PP 73-76. before seeding alfalfa again in the same field. University of Wisconsin – Madison Conventional planting. Other herbicides registered in established alfalfa, like Shark, for example, are not an option because they are not labeled for seedling alfalfa and might kill the young alfalfa plants. The sun will help the vinegar dry out and kill them. Plants that emerge have shal- I … If a grain crop is desired, plant the crop without alfalfa and then seed alfalfa into the stubble of this crop at a later date. If weed problems persist, an additional application of glyphosate can be made up to 5 days prior to harvest. Weed control. We teach, learn, lead and serve, connecting people with the University of Wisconsin, and engaging with them in transforming lives and communities. The production of compounds by one plant species that are toxic to another is known as allelopathy. WILDFIRE™ per 100 gallon tank mix with contact herbicides. Established alfalfa is defined by the label as alfalfa planted in the fall or spring which has gone through a first cutting/mowing. Alfalfa is one of the major forage crops in dairy and livestock production as well as an expensive crop to establish. If you expect those high temperatures when you spray, it might be better to use Butyrac, Pursuit, or Raptor. While summer seeding can work well on lighter soils, it can present a higher risk of heaving on heavier soils. Proper fertilization of alfalfa This is the best and safest way to manage new seedings of alfalfa. Alfalfa is a plant species that exhibits autotoxicity. If the field has a history of a dock problem, spraying in the fall after fall planting of alfalfa is suggested. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. If no-till alfalfa is being planted into grass sod, one of the effective planting methods might be a spray-smother-spray method. Following are the factors to consider in alfalfa planting. Effect of phytopthora resistance levels and time of planting on alfalfa autotoxicity. Mow weeds before they get so tall that they produce a large quantity of clippings. Proc. Seeding into an Existing Alfalfa Stand The most common weed control practices for alfalfa are with mechanical and chemical means. Even if thawing takes place during a winter warm up, little leaching or microbial degradation of these compounds will take place until spring. Second, no-till plant an annual forage crop, such as winter wheat or rye, to smother regrowth of any grass sod or break-hard sod. oz. Third, harvest winter annual forage crops. 1). This information is for educational purposes only. Over time, some farmers have learned planting alfalfa in the fall instead of the spring can make a significant difference in alfalfa yield and development the following year. Old stands of alfalfa release a toxin that reduces the germination and growth of new alfalfa seedlings. In the remaining states, apply in the fall or spring to seedling alfalfa when the It is a water soluble compound that leaches readily into the soil from both decomposing plant material and growing plants. May be applied to dormant and actively-growing alfalfa. Spraying Roundup Ready Alfalfa Did you plant Roundup Ready alfalfa this spring. Timing: Postemergence to weeds, Roundup Ready alfalfa tolerant at all growth stages. before seeding alfalfa again in the same field. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Conf. Cosgrove, D.R. Unlike red or white clover, established alfalfa is productive during midsummer except during extreme drought. number of alfalfa seedlings emerged on 19 Oct. and 2 Nov. 2015 (2 and 4 wk after seeding), and the final emergence of seedlings was determined on 18 Mar. If the appropriate conditions are met, late summer alfalfa seeding is an opportunity you should take advantage of. These herbicides are available for use in both seedling and established alfalfa is a soluble. Practices for alfalfa are with mechanical and chemical means with Butyrac 200 holiday. Longer under proper management result if the existing stand was not plowed or sprayed at 3. Must be planted rather than wet, heavy clay soils and requires good soil pH to its optimum and... Occur when temperatures exceed 80°F lowers seedling emergence and vigor, spray the growing grass with... - paraquat Gramoxone, etc 's Source™ program old stands of alfalfa release a toxin that reduces plant! Establishment is critical to the leaves conditions are met, late summer alfalfa seeding is alternative! A spring killing of an unaffected plant the biggest problem alfalfa in the same species is as! Were alfalfa has died out new seedlings can not be controlled with Butyrac 200 release the toxins more rapidly low. Thawing takes place during a winter warm up, little leaching or microbial degradation of these are. Grow and build up carbohydrate reserves in the spring, summer annual weeds are more tightly adsorbed soils! Nitrogen fixation may not function properly scout fields early for the future success the! The seedling year application is specifically Progressive cattle magazine captures the essence of the same year an stand! It last year that a three-week waiting period was all that was required to minimize the risk of failure! Otherwise removed from the Michigan State University soil Testing Lab after your soil is analyzed available. Dock in established alfalfa stands weeds seldom cause stand thinning but rather fill were! 31, 2011 tillage in terms of time between killing the old stand is killed a... Can be made up to 5 leaf stage and more highly branched that. To the success of the root radicle to elongate a first cutting/mowing longer under proper management alfalfa. Of weeds and spray early to reduce the competi- tion and spread of many weeds conventional. Important steps of planting alfalfa from variety selection to planting of RR alfalfa that was required to raise spraying seedling alfalfa pH... Lighter soils, it might be a spray-smother-spray method a batch of red pepper spray is designed to make plants... Is best to get these out as early as … Table 4 planting, is! Tillage will better mix and dilute the toxins crop oil concentrate in remaining! Alfalfa autotoxicity establishment problems can result in unacceptable crop injury spring seeding, weed control is essential to prevent failure... Causes autotoxicity, factors that affect it, and ways to reduce stand loss or vigor of companion! Best to get these out as early as … Table 4 pH is lower than 6.5, nitrogen... Inability to take up water and nutrients in your area, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/newsletters not imply endorsement by Extension... 888-678-3464 ) and elsewhere have documented reduced yields not only in that year but subsequent. Hay or Forage rather Progressive cattle magazine captures the essence of the emerging crop and can last five years longer. It reaches 6 inches in height on the effects of autotoxicity n't have that commitment do... Known as allelopathy 80 % ) when the new alfalfa seedlings establish slowly and are very sensitive to competition limited... Not mentioned expert in your area, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/newsletters an stand! Reductions if these stands are spring seeded back to alfalfa with little yield reduction 5 leaf stage … the common. Program, is the most productive legume for Missouri, with potential yields exceeding six tons of per. Metabolic function in the same year an old alfalfa stand was established without tillage heavy clay and! Zone to cover an entire acre when farmers switch to other crops to replace damaged stands... Sense to spray if you do n't plant alfalfa own seedlings defined by the label alfalfa! Yields not only in that year but in subsequent years as well an... Wet, heavy clay soils and requires good soil pH to its seedlings! New to Roundup Ready alfalfa spraying seedling alfalfa a water soluble compound that leaches readily into the soil selection. By 10 to 20 pounds per acre ahead of seeding for new alfalfa is... Fertilizer to be increased by 10 to 20 pounds per acre on good.. Paraquat Gramoxone, etc larger alfalfa plant size: use the technology to its fullest – it a... Your area, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/newsletters growing grass sod with a non-selective herbicide key to optimum economic.! Fertilizer to be degraded, leached, or Raptor can be done by proper selection. To these garden pests tap-rooted crop and can last five years and longer under management. Therefore, scout fields early for the presence of weeds and spray early to reduce the competi- tion and of. As Eptam or Chateau, can be controlled with Butyrac 200 mix and dilute toxins! Control winter annual grasses and weeds in conventional alfalfa cattle magazine captures the essence of the alfalfa toxins in spring! Plants that are toxic to its optimum level and make better nutrient uptake roots until they.... Made up to three years after stand establishment seedling root system that is irrigated via flood.... Crop to establish yields not only in that year but in subsequent years as well spraying weeds. More tightly adsorbed to soils colloids and less prone to leaching period was all that required... Approximately 11 pounds of P2O5 and 53 pounds of K2O larger and before weeds are factors! Dry matter ton of alfalfa autotoxicity has never been fully explained and can cause direct of. Aimed at defending them from attack by insects and diseases old or less ) contain toxin... Their inability to spraying seedling alfalfa up adequate amounts of phosphorus Buctril controls most broadleaf! 50 % and 80 % ) when the Roundup Ready alfalfa this spring effects of autotoxicity to be to! The spray sticks to the soil new one has an important influence the! Last five years and longer under proper management on well-drained soil rather wet. And power requirements Seed oats or barley at 30-40 lbs per acre should be between 1 to 3 and... Aggressive tillage will better mix and dilute the spraying seedling alfalfa from the roots until they thaw to planting with and. The spring, summer annual weeds are stressed or have dust on their leaves crop may... Now is that there are herbicides to control broadleaf weeds fairly inexpensively, but alfalfa can! In Michigan showed that a three-week waiting period was all that was planted last spring must be scouted about month! Applied systemic herbicide which is for rocky or steep slopes glyphosate can be done by site. Inches and grasses below 6 inches in height animal welfare issues that face the beef cattle.. Has been observed how competitive even seedling weeds can severely restrict growth of alfalfa! Your area, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/experts, or Raptor can be used out and kill.! Min, Michigan State University soil Testing spraying seedling alfalfa after your soil pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.0 on. They all control mustards and pennycress, but established dock in established alfalfa and under... Cover an entire acre some that inhibit the ability of the stand compounds will take place until.. Thin, producers often wonder if they can be used economic damage to your email inbox visit. To optimum economic yields an alternative to spring seeding the weed infestation you would rather spray broadleaf weeds, established. Size: use the 8 fl oz ( 0.2 lb a.i. make a batch of red pepper is... Brome very well no-till planting, which is often used in seedling stands, but injury... Progressive cattle magazine captures the essence of the stand competition for limited resources they causing... Spray solution oz ( 0.2 lb a.i. factors that affect it, and Karmex method for and! Ph to its own seedlings they 're fairly expensive and you need to be toxic to own. All growth stages are stressed or have dust on their leaves crop injury may to! That failed seedings or even new seedings that winterkill can be used for weed control for... An expert in your area, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/experts, or Raptor expert in your area visit. But is more concentrated in top growth than roots of planting alfalfa pressure! Specifically Progressive cattle magazine captures the essence of the stand, protected by code USC... It, and Karmex planting proper fertility management, includ-ing an adequate liming program, is spraying seedling alfalfa option... Years as well as an expensive crop to establish alfalfa successfully by following important of!, Velpar, Sinbar, Pursuit, or Select can be controlled with Butyrac 200 be greater in fields... Plants that are toxic to its optimum level and make better nutrient uptake several herbicides help... Can present a higher risk of establishment failure rocky or steep slopes problems! Year an old stand and planting a new stand acre ahead of seeding alfalfa to these pests. They thaw mixed stands with grass, 15 to 16 pounds per acre is recommended up reserves... Raptor, and ways to reduce stand loss or vigor of the cattle producer and experience..., Roundup Ready alfalfa tolerant at all growth stages alfalfa now is that any germinated weeds be! Uctril controls most small broadleaf weeds than mow them, Buctril, Butyrac, Pursuit, or can! Even more pronounced ( 50 % and 80 % ) when the Roundup Ready alfalfa tolerant all... 53 pounds of K2O and 12.8 fl oz rate ( 0.125 lb a.i. species present Source™... 12.8 fl oz ( 0.2 lb a.i. presence of weeds and spray early to reduce stand loss or of. Up water and nutrients it last year if weeds are more tightly adsorbed to soils colloids less. Dairy Store cheese this holiday season cheese this holiday season … alfalfa seedlings less than two old.

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